Nginx的Location可以有以下几个匹配:

1. =   严格匹配这个查询。如果找到,停止搜索。

2. ^~ 匹配路径的前缀,如果找到,停止搜索。

3. ~   为区分大小写的正则匹配  

4. ~* 为不区分大小写匹配



例子:



location = / {

# matches the query / only.

# 只匹配 / 查询。

[ configuration A ]

}

location / {

# matches any query, since all queries begin with /, but regular

# expressions and any longer conventional blocks will be

# matched first.

# 匹配任何查询,因为所有请求都已 / 开头。但是正则表达式规则和长的块规则将被优先和查询匹配。

[ configuration B ]

}

location ^~ /images/ {

# matches any query beginning with /images/ and halts searching,

# so regular expressions will not be checked.

# 匹配任何已 /images/ 开头的任何查询并且停止搜索。任何正则表达式将不会被测试。

[ configuration C ]

}

location ~* ".(gif|jpg|jpeg)$ {

# matches any request ending in gif, jpg, or jpeg. However, all

# requests to the /images/ directory will be handled by

# Configuration C.

# 匹配任何已 gif、jpg 或 jpeg 结尾的请求。然而所有 /images/ 目录的请求将使用 Configuration C。

[ configuration D ]

}


如果要定义多个location,则可以有2种方式:



  1. 使用/ :location / { client_max_body_size 200m; proxy_connect_timeout 30; proxy_set_header Host $http_host; proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $remote_addr; proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8008; } location /tmp/{ root /; internal; } 采用这种方式,/tmp可以放在/的下面,因为“/是匹配任何查询,但是正则表达式规则和长的块规则将被优先和查询匹配”

  2. 使用~ /* : location ~ /tmp/ { root /tmp; internal; } location ~ /* { client_max_body_size 20m; proxy_connect_timeout 30; fastcgi_pass fpass; include fastcgi_params; } 采用这种方式,/tmp则必须放在~ /*这个前面,因为~是正则匹配的,正则匹配是有顺序的,只要匹配上就不会再往下匹配了。除非在conf中有定义=或者^~,也就是说=和^~的优先级最高,如果匹配上,就不会再去匹配其它的规则了。


总之,引用Nginx的官方文档的匹配规则:




  1. Directives with the = prefix that match the query exactly. If found, searching stops.

  2. All remaining directives with conventional strings, longest match first. If this match used the ^~ prefix, searching stops.

  3. Regular expressions, in order of definition in the configuration file.

  4. If #3 yielded a match, that result is used. Else the match from #2 is used.


注意:正则表达式的匹配是有顺序的,按顺序匹配。其它的匹配理论上讲是只有优先级,而没有顺序的。